Automotive Terms Dictionary


Factory Equipment
In used cars: combination of original equipment and optional that make up the equipment of a used vehicle. Also referred to as "base" equipment.

After Michael Faraday, English (1791-1867). The farad is a unit of electrical capacitance.

Fifth Wheel
Provides a connection (flexible) between the tractor and the trailer. Pivot mounted, it contains provision for accepting and holding the kingpin of a trailer, Center of the fifth wheel should always be located ahead of the centerline of the rear axle.

Final Drive Ratio
A fluid coupling consists of two fan-like impellers in a sealed, oil-filled housing. The input "fan" churns the oil, and the churning oil, in turn, twirls the output "fan." Such a coupling allows some speed difference between its input and output shafts. The automatic transmission's torque converter is based on the fluid coupling principle.

Four Wheel
On a vehicle equipped with Four-Wheel Anti-Lock Brakes, all four wheels are equipped with speed sensors. When these sensors determine that the wheels are decelerating so rapidly that lockup may occur, the Electro-Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU) is activated. The EHCU then modulates the brake pressure in the appropriate brake lines by means of the solenoid-operated valves. This is intended to prevent wheel lockup and help the vehicle maintain directional stability during potentially hazardous braking situations

Four Wheel Drive (4WD)
In a Four Wheel Drive system, a secondary transmission assembly, called a transfer case, is driven from the main transmission. The transfer case distributes power to both axles to drive all four wheels. It is the heart of the Four-Wheel Drive system. Four-Wheel Drive can be full-time, in which power is delivered to both axles at all times or part-time, where the driver selects two or four wheel drive. Four wheel drive is often combined with independent suspension systems and off-road type tires to enhance drive ability on rough, off-road terrain, or on-road drive ability in unfavorable driving conditions.

Four Wheel Independent Suspension
A type of suspension in which all wheels are mounted to separate suspension members with no rigid axle connecting them. Therefore a disturbance affecting one wheel has no effect on the opposite wheel. Four wheel independent suspension reduces the un-sprung weight, improves ride and handling over rough surfaces and permits room for a larger trunk.

Front-Wheel Drive (FWD)
A drive system where the engine and trans axle components apply the driving force to the front wheels rather than the rear wheels. Benefits of Front-Wheel drive include: Maximized passenger space. Enhanced cargo area. excellent drive traction; particularly on wet or slippery surfaces, since the drive is through the front wheels, which carry a heavier load.

Fuel Injection
A method of delivering fuel under pressure into an engine's combustion chamber. Fuel injection systems can be single-point, multi-point, etc. Replaces carbureted system.

Fuel Injection, Electronic
A computer-controlled method of delivering fuel under pressure. The computer monitors signals from coolant temperatures, manifold vacuum, exhaust oxygen sensor, and engine cranking sensor. It "tells" the injectors to release and adjust the fuel to yield an air/fuel mixture assuring engine operation well matched with emission requirements, optimum fuel economy and overall vehicle performance.

Fuel Pump
A mechanical or electrical device that draws fuel from the fuel tank and delivers it to the carburetor or injectors


Canada gas tax breakdown per province - Each litre of gas you're buying, how much of that amount is going to your government? View breakdown across all provinces.

High gas prices? Think again. - So you think you're paying too much for gas?. Take a look at pricing of gas around the world and see how Canada stacks up against other countries.

With gas prices surpassing $1 dollar mark we take a look at other fuel alternatives. Hybrid vehicles, CNG, Propane and other alternatives. Read our article on propane and natural gas

Diesel engine technology has been around for quite some time now. See list of Diesel vehicles that are currently available to you. / 2020
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